Year 2007 Volume 4(31) no.2
REMOTE CONTROL OF A ROBOTIZED FLEXIBLE WORKCELL
USING A WEB INTERFACE (pp. 1-6)
Florin Daniel Anton, Theodor Borangiu, Silvia Anton, Andra Condrut
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Dept. of Automation and Applied Informatics
Nowadays production flows are modular, each module in the enterprise being
specialized and used to achieve a particular task. In many cases the modules are
connected and materials are sequentially processed in each module resulting a final,
unique product or assembly. One typical such production module is a flexible cell/system
using multiple robots. The paper describes a platform which is a software product
designed to control and supervise multiple robot-vision controllers using remote
connections with a number of Adept Technology V+ controllers, either located in a local
network or via Internet. Additionally the platform allows users to run remote robot vision
sessions and to develop and execute robot-vision programs.
remote control, flexible manufacturing systems, interface, robot vision, robot
UTILIZATION OF ACTIVE CONTOUR METHODS (pp. 7-12)
Technical university of Košice, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
Department of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence
The main aim of image segmentation is to divide an image to some parts, which correlate strongly by objects of reality. At image segmentation, deformable models which were studied at resolving of these problems, found wide use. Deformable models became popular since 1987. In the literature we can meet different names for these models, for example snake, active contours, as well as surfaces or balloons. Of course, that this theme is dealt also by different segmentation methods, but this article deals exactly the use of the method of active contours and explains briefly the fundamentals of functioning of this system and finally offers a simple demonstration of functioning of the active contours methods at a artificial and real picture.
image segmentation, active contour, parametric and geometric deformable models
FUZZY ODOMETRY ERROR APPROXIMATION OF A MOBILE ROBOT (pp.13-17)
Áron Ballagi1, Tihamér Ádám2
Department of Automation, University of Miskolc
This paper presents a non-systematic odometry error qualificatory method base on fuzzy logic. Odometry is the most widely used navigation method for mobile robot positioning. It is well known that odometry provides good short-term accuracy, is inexpensive, and allows very high sampling rates. The disadvantage of odometry is that the position error grows without bound unless an independent reference is used periodically to reduce the error. We have started a research project that works out some intelligent methods for calculate the plausibility of odometric trajectory and pose of a mobile robot.
Robotics, Fuzzy Logic, Odometry.
A TELEOPERATION EXPERIMENT TO CONTROL THE “PLATE AND BALL” (pp.18-23)
Claudiu Chiculita, Laurentiu Frangu
„Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
The paper presents an experimental setup, for a teleoperation experiment. It
contains a physical controlled object and all the server and client software required to
local or remote control of this object (through the Internet). The controlled object is the
known experiment "plate and ball" and the feedback provided by image processing,
which is an unstable system. When remote operated, the experiment includes an unknown
and variable deadtime, produced by the network propagation time of the control and
feedback signals. The objectives are to share this teaching and research resource and to
create a challenging control problem, i.e. control of unstable processes, with variable
deadtime in the loop. The main result is the remote control system, satisfying the above
teleoperation, Internet, control, deadtime, communication software.
WCMS: WEB-BASED CONFERENCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (pp. 24-31)
Dervis Z. Deniz and Atilla Bulancak
Information Technologies R&D Center
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Eastern Mediterranean University
Gazimagusa, N. Cyprus, Mersin-10, Turkey
Web based conference organization and management is one of the most popular
applications over the Internet developed recently. Conferences are events that bring
knowledge and people together. There is however a lot of informational exchange,
organizational and administrative work to be carried out before such an event can be a
success. In this paper, an automated web based conference management system is
described. Automation of certain management activities is proposed in order to take the
pain out of such event organization. Academic conference organization is presented as an
example to such an activity.
Conference management, web application, web-based event management,
Internet information systems.
DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF
STRUCTURE-FROM-MOTION ALGORITHMS (pp.32-37)
Ionut Dinulescu, Alice Predescu, Dorin Popescu
University of Craiova, Faculty of Automation, Computers & Electronics
Dept. of Automation and Mechatronics
The aim of this work is to develop a software framework which allows building
and evaluation of structure-from-motion algorithms. A graphical simulation software
built on top of this framework allows fast development and debugging each phase of the
segmentation process, starting with image acquisition to final feature extraction. The
object oriented architecture of the framework allows later extension, without the need to
modify and re-test its existing components.
image recognition, structure from motion, segmentation, moving camera.
EXPERIMENTS IN SENSOR NETWORK MONITORING (pp.38-45)
Sorin Dumitru, Dorian Cojocaru
University of Craiova, Faculty of Automation, Computers and Electronics, Automation &
Wireless communications and electronics has been enabled the development of
low-cost sensor networks. The sensor networks can be used for various application areas
(e.g., health, military, home). In this paper our aim was to design and implement an
application for monitoring the data from a Tmote Sky that is measuring the temperature,
humidity and pressure and communicates at a certain trigger of start with other motes.
This motes are connected and configured so that the communication between them can be
maintained at a certain scale. The application was developed to the Czech Technical
University in Prague in the ERASMUS/SOCRATES program.
sensor network, visualization.
MOBILE ROBOTS PATH PLANNING BY USING CELLULAR NEURAL NETWORKS (pp. 46-53)
I. Gavrilut*, V. Tiponut**, A. Gacsádi*
*University of Oradea, Electronics Department
**Politehnica University from Timisoara, Applied Electronics Department
The paper presents some vision-based algorithms for mobile robots guidance in
an environment with obstacles. Cellular Neural Networks (CNNs) processing techniques
are used here for real time motion planning to reach a fixed target. The CNN methods are
considered an advantageous solution for image processing in autonomous mobile robots
image processing, CNN, path planning, mobile robots.
PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION FOR THE HUMAN UPPER LIMB IN MOTION (pp. 54-57)
S.C. Takata-Petri, SRL,
One of the most important applications of parametric representation of the
system is modeling described by the end of cinematic chain during the motion. The
approach to modeling is based on the direct geometrical model considering the human
upper limb as a cinematic structure similar to that a robot with five degrees of freedom.
parametric representation, human upper limb
IMPLEMENTATIONS OF A MULTISENSOR MULTITARGET TRACKING ALGORITHM (pp.58-63)
Military Technical Academy Bucuresti, ROMÂNIA
Parallel and sequential implementations of the Multi-sensor Joint Probabilistic Data Association (MSJPDA) tracking algorithm are analyzed and compared. The sequential implementation is shown to be exponentially less computationally complex as the number of sensors increases. Simulation results suggest that the sequential method also yields better tracking performance on the average. This is primarily due to the fact that better filtered estimates are available after processing each sensor's data. Thus, while sequential and parallel implementations are equivalent in multisensor filtering when no data association routine is needed, the sequential implementation gives superior tracking performance when data association is required.
multitarget, tracking , multisensor
THE GRASPING CONTROL OF A HYPERREDUNDANT ROBOT BY USING INTELLIGENT
MATERIALS (pp. 64-69)
Mircea Ivanescu*, Mihaela Cecilia Florescu**
* Mechatronics Department, Faculty of Automation, Computers and Electronics
** Faculty of Engineering of Management of Technological Systems,
University of Craiova
The paper focuses on the control problem of a tentacle robot that performs the
coil function of the grasping. First, the dynamic model of a tentacle arm with continuum
elements produced by flexible composite materials in conjunction with activecontrollable
electro-rheological fluids is analyzed. Secondly, both problems, i.e. the
position control and the force control are approached. The difficulties determined by the
complexity of the non-linear integral-differential equations are avoided by using a very
basic energy relationship of this system. Energy-based control laws are introduced for the
position control problem. A force control method is proposed, namely the DSMC method
in which the evolution of the system on the switching line by the ER fluid viscosity is
controlled. Numerical simulation is also presented.
distributed control, energy control, force control, robotics.
AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM FOR MOBILE ROBOT NAVIGATION (pp.70-74)
Gheorghe LAZEA, Radu ROBOTIN,
Cosmin MARCU, Levente TAMAS
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Automation
Cooperative mobile robots involve accurate robot localization, map-matching
and information exchange and collision-free navigation. Autonomous robots must be able
to learn and maintain models of their environments. Robots operating in a team must also
exchange information and cope with the requirements of a dynamic world. The paper
gives results for autonomous exploration, mapping and operation of a mobile robot in
populated multi-room environments, part of a mobile team of exploratory robots.
mobile robots, autonomous exploration, Kalman filters, sensor integration,
MODELING IN WHEELED MOBILE ROBOTICS TO IMPROVE
THE NAVIGATION QUALITY (pp.75-80)
University of Craiova
Faculty of Automation, Computers and Electronics,
Department of Automation and Mechatronics
This work presents some considerations regarding mathematical models and
control solutions for a class of mobile robots currently namely two-wheel differential
drive mobile robots. Now, this configuration is one of the most utilized mechanical
structures in wheeled mobile robotics practice. The closed loop control diagrams for
position control and respectively for direction control in tracking along imposed
trajectories are also analyzed and included in this paper. For these control solutions and
based on root locus method diagram, the paper presents therefore some analyses
regarding the stability in different circumstances.
Mobile robotics, Modeling, Control, Stability
TELEROBOTICS THROUGH INTERNET: PROBLEMS, APPROACHES AND APPLICATIONS (pp.81-90)
Roberto Oboe 1, Tahar Slama 2, Alberto Trevisani 3
1 Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering
University of Trento
2 Laboratory of Vision and Robotic
University of Bourges, France.
3Department of Technique and Management of Industrial Systems
University of Padova, Italy.
This paper presents the problems arising in the realization of an Internet-based
telerobotic system. Variable delays, data losses, unknown available throughput and
unknown enviroment dynamics are the common problems faced in designing a reliable
control strategy. The design of a stabilizing controller can be approached with several
techniques, each of them with merits and limitations. The paper introduces some of the
newest techniques, and presents some applications.
telerobotics, communication networks, time delay, delay compensation
COGNITIVE VISION SYSTEM FOR AN ECOLOGICAL MOBILE ROBOT (pp. 91-96)
Ana Pavel, Cristian Vasile, Catalin Buiu
Faculty of Automatic Control and Computers
“POLITEHNICA” University of Bucharest
Ecology is a challenging application area for mobile service robots. They
should be able to automate tasks that are too tedious or dangerous for humans to execute,
such as collecting waste material. Such a robot must make use of several senses, of which
the most important and difficult to implement is vision. This paper presents the cognitive
vision system of ReMaster One, an autonomous service robot that is able to recognize and
sort waste in an indoor environment. A first prototype has been built and tested with
service robot, ecology, cognitive vision
ON APPLYING MULTIAGENT SYSTEMS TO A COLABORATIVE ASSEMBLY ROBOT
SYSTEM: A COMPARISON OF TWO COORDINATION SCHEMES (pp.97-102)
Doru Panescu, Marius Sutu, Stefan Dumbrava
”Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi,
Faculty of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering
Department of Automatic Control and Applied Informatics
A comparison of two multiagent schemes is presented. One is a blackboard
based system, the other uses a message exchange coordination mechanism. They are
compared regarding the possibility to plan and control an assembly manufacturing
system with two industrial robots working in cooperation. The coordination and
communication issues are discussed, the advantages for each of the proposed approaches
being pointed out. The aim of the research is to increase the autonomy and flexibility of
robot based manufacturing systems.
multi-agent systems, planning, blackboard systems, cooperative robotics,
CONTACT RECOGNITION USING TACTILE SENSOR (pp.103-108)
Somrak Petchartee1 and Gareth Monkman2
1Ferderal Arms Force University Munich, Germany,
2University of Applied Sciences Regensburg, Germany
The surface recognition algorithm that determines the types of contact surfaces
by fusing information collected by the tactile sensor system is proposed. The tactile
system will be determined from the shape of the object image which can then be
characterized using the mathematical properties of Quadric surface. This algorithm can
recognize 3-D objects using a 2-fingered robot gripper, on which tactile sensors are
mounted. Experiments have demonstrated the reliability of the surface classification
method and the accuracy of transformations independent of an object’s shape, translation
multisensor integration, surface classification, surface recognition, shape
recognition, shape discrimination.
PRE-SLIP SENSING USING TACTILE SENSOR (pp.109-114)
Somrak Petchartee1 and Gareth Monkman2
1Ferderal Arms Force University Munich, Germany,
2University of Applied Sciences Regensburg, Germany
A method to detect pre-slip by controlling the normal force as measured by tactile sensor
arrays has been developed. A predictive model has been proposed which uses a basic method
adapted to real applications in grasp optimization. Prevention of premature release with minimum
prehension force is addressed without the need to measure the coefficient of friction between object
and robot gripper. Predictive models have been used to develop a set of rules which predict the preslip
based on fluctuations in tactile signal data.
predictive control, vibration measurement, signal detection, transient
oscillations, robot control.
LEARNING NEUROPROSTHESES CONTROL BY USING REMOTELY TUTORED SIMULATION
AND EXPERIMENTS (pp.115-120)
Marian POBORONIUC1, Marian PETRESCU1,2, Ciprian STEFAN1, Gheorghe LIVINT1
1Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Iasi, Romania,
2Siemens VDO Automotive SRL, Iasi, Romania
Functional Electrical Stimulation is a means of producing contractions in
muscles, paralysed due to central nervous system lesions, by means of electrical
stimulation. The devices that provides the required stimulation pattern are termed as
neuroprostheses. By increasing the number of specialists that are trained to implement
control strategies within a neuroprosthesis an increased number of disabled people may
benefit during their rehabilitation processus. The main feature of the developed system is
support for the training, development, implementation and testing of user defined control
algorithms with remote equipment laboratory that emulate a neuroprosthesis.
Remote labs, E-learning, Functional Electrical Stimulation, Neuroprostheses.
TELEMATICS APPLICATION FOR
A FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (pp.121-126)
Dorin Popescu, Florin Manta, Adrian Moraret, Sorin Vava, Livia Popescu
University of Craiova, Faculty of Automation, Computers and Electronics
Department of Automation and Mechatronics, Romania
The aim of the work was to develop telematics aplications to be used in an eteaching
context. A web based application has been developed, which links a
programmable logic controller (PLC) with a computer for programming via Internet. The
main requirement of our application is to provide a friendly user interface that allows
PLC application developers to control a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) from
anywhere in the world via a thin client that does not need the installation of any
additional software on the user side. The user has possibility to see the environment
(FMS) via images from a network video camera.
telematics, web based application, flexible manufacturing system,
programmable logic controller, open-source technologies.
VIRTUAL COURSES & LAB PORTAL (pp.127-132)
Nirvana Popescu, Decebal Popescu, Cornel Popescu*
* POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Computer Science Department,
** Eng., Future IT ConceptCompany
This paper presents the implementation of a portal dedicated to the academic
activities for a specific subject. The portal, designed and developed in TYPO 3, is meant
to create a virtual space for learning. The student can attend courses, view slides and run
the labs in a virtual environment.
portal, TYPO 3, distance learning.
DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING ALGORITHMS IN AUTONOMOUS MOBILE ROBOTS (pp.133-141)
Ionut Resceanu, Ofelia Tindea
University of Craiova, Faculty of Automation, Computers and Electronics,
Department of Mechatronics, Romania
S.C. IT SIX Global Services, Craiova, Romania
Reinforcement learning is often a considerable abstraction of the problem of
goal-directed learning from interaction. Autonomous, online learning robots possess the
ability to operate in complex, dynamic environments through training and instruction to
improve the robots’ connection between its perception and action. In this article, it is
presented an implementation of an autonomous, learning robot that performs exploration
of the environment and learns how to avoid obstacle effectively. The robot was built
using the Lego RCX.
control algorithms mobile robot, genetic algorithms, learning, path-planning,
AN ASYMMETRICAL ONE-LEGGED
HOPPING ROBOT CONTROL:
DISCRETE-TIME SLIDING MODE APPROACH (pp.142-150)
Ajij Sayyad , K. Kurien Issac,
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai, India
The only possible gait (hopping) of single-legged hopping system can be
modeled as a simple hybrid dynamic system, with spring-mass dynamics during
stance and ballistic motion during the °ight phase. In this paper, an asymmetrical
2 DOF one-legged hopping robot - a Springy-Legged O®set-Mass (SLOM) robot
- is investigated. An under-actuated model, uses a simple linear actuator to input
energy within the °ight duration. A 3-dimensional Poincar¶e return map is used to
investigate this nonlinear model. This nonlinear model is linearized at its operating
point. We formulated a linear approximate model of the proposed robot. We used
di®erent discrete-time sliding mode based state feedback stabilization strategies to
accomplish sustained hopping behaviour. The proposed sliding mode controllers
are designed based on the linear approximate model and applied to the actual
nonlinear hopping model.
hopping robotics, Poincare map, linear approximation, discrete-time
sliding mode control
NAVIGATION OF AUTONOMOUS ROBOTIC VEHICLES
USING FUZZY LOGIC (pp.151-156)
Nikos C. Tsourveloudis
Intelligent Systems and Robotics Laboratory
Department of Production Engineering and Management
Technical University of Crete
A general fuzzy logic control framework along with its application specific
modifications is presented to support, evaluate and justify the proposed perspective to
unmanned vehicle autonomous navigation. The paper discusses successful applications of
collision free motion control of ground, aerial and underwater unmanned vehicles
navigation. The common characteristic in all applications regardless of the type of
vehicle is the navigation architecture used. Experimental and simulation results are
included to validate and support the implemented techniques and approaches. A
comparison of classical and soft computing based controllers, designed to control an
underwater vehicle provides additional evidence of the usefulness and applicability of
fuzzy logic as a viable alternative to using analytic approaches, and as a modeling tool
that deals with real life ill-defined problems.
Autonomous navigation, unmanned vehicles, fuzzy logic.
IMAGE-GUIDED ROBOTIC UROLOGIC INTERVENTIONS (pp.157-162)
Bogdan Vigaru, Pierre Mozer , Doru Petrisor , Dan Stoianovici
Urology Robotics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Today’s most successful surgical robots are perhaps surgeon-driven systems,
such as the da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical Inc., USA, www.intuitivesurgical.com). These
have already enabled surgery that was unattainable with classic instrumentation;
however, at their present level of development, they have limited utility. The drawback of
these systems is that they are independent self-contained units, and as such, they do not
directly take advantage of patient data. The potential of these new surgical tools lies
much further ahead. Integration with medical imaging and information are needed for
these devices to achieve their true potential.
Many different robotic systems have been developed for invasive medical procedures.
Surgical robots and especially their subclass of image-guided systems require special
design, construction and control compared to industrial types, due to the special
requirements of the medical and imaging environments. Imager compatibility raises
significant engineering challenges for the development of robotic manipulators with
respect to imager access, safety, ergonomics, and above all the non-interference with the
functionality of the imager.
medical robot, image-guided robot, MR compatible
POSSIBILITIES OF COMMUNICATION
IN INFORMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS (pp.163-169)
Iveta Zolotová, Marián Bakoš, Lenka Landryová
Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
Department of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence
VSB Technical University Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Department of Control Systems and Instrumentation,
Ostrava, Czech Republic
This article takes an interest in communication possibilities in Information and
Control Systems (ICS), focused on visualization and control of SCADA/HMI systems. It
describes the way of communication between Suite Voyager Industrial Server and
external devices or models. It contains descriptions of configurations and a description of
structures which we have built in our department. We also describe communication
protocols which we use and combine in our solution. At the end, these possibilities are
compared and our practical experience is described.
visualization, SCADA/HMI, communication possibilities, Information and